As teorias da evolução são como as sardinhas?

fonte: aqui

E este mapa que retrata a história do mundo desde o ano 2.000 AC? Foi a partir daqui que começou a história como a conhecemos?  Eventualmente pode ir até 4.500 AC e aos povos da Suméria. Não é impressionante não se saber nada num planeta com 4,54 mil milhões de anos a não serem pistas, teorias e ossos que alguém nos diz o que pensam que pode ser? Não é impressionante pensar que faz todo o sentido acreditarmos no que nos dizem mas que em 50% das situações quando a ciência evolui descobre-se que os outros 50% afinal não eram bem assim? Como as sardinhas. Ora fazem bem à saúde, ora fazem mal.

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Ensaios clínicos, essenciais no desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos

fonte: http://www.dn.pt/opiniao/opiniao-dn/convidados/interior/ensaios-clinicos-essenciais-no-desenvolvimento-de-novos-medicamentos-5198149.html

A 20 de maio de 1747, o médico da marinha britânica James Lind conduziu aquele que é hoje reconhecido como o primeiro ensaio clínico da história. O estudo, realizado num grupo de marinheiros que sofriam de escorbuto, permitiu registar pela primeira vez os efeitos positivos da vitamina C num grupo de indivíduos a quem foi administrado sumo de limão. O cirurgião, ao realizar o primeiro estudo comparativo em condições experimentais controladas, constituiu a base para os princípios de investigação clínica e para a inovação terapêutica em saúde.

Inspirados por este ato de audácia e de conquista de ganhos em saúde, devemos renovar, enquanto país, a ambição de ir mais longe no campo da inovação em saúde.

Infelizmente, existe um desconhecimento generalizado em relação à realização de ensaios clínicos. No entanto, sem estes estudos, peça essencial no desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos, paralisaríamos o progresso do conhecimento científico e a inovação em saúde, comprometendo a evolução positiva na sobrevivência e na qualidade de vida de todos nós.

Importa salientar que a condução de estudos clínicos obedece a regras muito claras e rigorosas, reduzindo o risco inerente ao desenvolvimento de medicamentos experimentais, e salvaguardando a segurança dos participantes.

A indústria farmacêutica é a principal fonte de inovação na investigação e no desenvolvimento de novas terapêuticas e como tal responsável por grande parte dos ensaios clínicos promovidos a nível mundial.

A Apifarma defende o valor da investigação clínica para os doentes e para a sociedade e acredita na importância de ações que contribuam para uma maior literacia nesta área. Nesse âmbito, disponibilizou no seu website um conjunto de vídeos dedicados a explicar e a simplificar alguns conceitos em relação ao tema.

Além do benefício para os doentes, os ensaios clínicos permitem produzir conhecimento essencial ao progresso da prática clínica, contribuem para o reforço das qualificações dos profissionais de saúde e, em última análise, para a melhoria dos cuidados assistenciais.

Adicionalmente, uma cultura sólida de investigação clínica a nível nacional poderá aumentar a qualidade e a visibilidade da ciência produzida em Portugal e simultaneamente contribuir para a economia do conhecimento no nosso país.

Por tudo isto, o Dia Internacional dos Ensaios Clínicos, assinalado no passado dia 20 de maio, constitui um momento para reafirmar, enquanto país, o nosso compromisso com a investigação e com a inovação em saúde e reconhecer todos os seus contributos para o progresso científico e a melhoria da nossa saúde.

Vice-presidente da Apifarma

6 Easy Tricks That Will Make You Way More Productive

1.Never Touch Things Twice

That’s it. Never put anything in a holding pattern, because touching things twice is a huge time-waster. Don’t save an email or a phone call to deal with later. As soon as something gets your attention you should act on it, delegate it or delete it.

2. Eat Frogs

To pull this off you’re going to have to eat some frogs. “Eating a frog” is doing the least appetizing, most dreaded item on your to-do list. If you let your frogs sit, you waste your day dreading them. If you eat them right away, then you’re freed up to tackle the stuff that excites and inspires you.

3. Fight The Tyranny Of The Urgent

You’ll also need to master the tyranny of the urgent. The tyranny of the urgent refers to the tendency of little things that have to be done right now to get in the way of what really matters. This creates a huge problem as urgent actions often have little impact. The key here is to delete or delegate. Otherwise, you can find yourself going days, or even weeks, without touching the important stuff. You’ll need to get good at spotting when putting out fires is getting in the way of your performance, and you’ll need to delete or delegate the things that hinder real forward momentum.

4. Say No

No is a powerful word that you’re going to have to wield. When it’s time to say no, avoid phrases such as “I don’t think I can” or “I’m not certain.” Saying no to a new commitment honors your existing commitments and gives you the opportunity to successfully and efficiently fulfill them. Research conducted at the University of California in San Francisco shows that the more difficulty that you have saying no, the more likely you are to experience stress, burnout and even depression. Learn to use no, and it will lift your mood, as well as your productivity.

5. Check Email On A Schedule

If you aren’t going to touch things twice, you can’t allow email to be a constant interruption. You should check email on a schedule, taking advantage of features that prioritize messages by sender. Set alerts for your most important vendors and best customers, and save the rest until the scheduled time. You could even set up an autoresponder that lets senders know when you’ll be checking your email again.

6. Avoid Multitasking

To make my system work, you’re also going to have to avoid multitasking. It’s a real productivity killer. Research conducted at Stanford University confirms that multitasking is less productive than doing a single thing at a time. The researchers found that people who are regularly bombarded with several streams of electronic information cannot pay attention, recall information or switch from one job to another as well as those who complete one task at a time.

Multitasking reduces your efficiency and performance because your brain can only focus on one thing at a time. When you try to do two things at once, your brain lacks the capacity to perform both tasks successfully. Never touching things twice means only touching one thing at a time.

O que é que a Alemanha tem que os outros não têm?


Em 8 de Maio de 1945, quando capitulou perante os Aliados, a Alemanha era um país devastado; poucos anos volvidos era a potência económica n.º 1 da Europa. O que aconteceu entretanto?

(…)

Os bombardeamentos aliados destruíram um quarto dos 16 milhões de lares alemães (…), produzindo um volume total de escombros estimado em 400 milhões de metros cúbicos e deixando sem casa 18 a 20 milhões de alemães.

(…)

os especialistas em planeamento urbano estimaram que a reconstrução levaria pelo menos 70 anos – e acabaram por não andar longe da verdade, já que a Frauenkirche, uma das mais belas igrejas da cidade, só viu o seu restauro concluído em 2005.

(…)

As perdas humanas elevaram-se a 4,5 milhões de soldados e 1,5 milhões de civis…

(…)

Na Alemanha de 1945 não só havia um milhão de órfãos de guerra como muitas famílias tinham ficado separadas devido às deslocações e convulsões dos últimos meses de guerra. No Verão de 1945 havia 53.000 crianças perdidas só em Berlim.

In jornal observador aqui

How You Can Learn the #1 Persuasion Technique of FBI Hostage Negotiators

Artigo

• Paraphrase: “It sounds as if you’re satisfied with our component overall. But if I understand correctly, you need me to assure you that we can increase production if large orders come in. You’re also concerned about our proposed per-unit price and our willingness to work with you to create an acceptable arrangement. Have I captured your main points?”

• Inquire: “You mentioned that you found our proposed price to be unacceptable. Help me understand how you came to this conclusion. Let’s also talk about how we might set up a pricing structure that you find more reasonable.”

• Acknowledge: “It sounds as if you’re quite disappointed with various elements of our proposal, so much so that you have serious concerns about whether we’ll be able to work together over the long haul.”

The Most Productive People Know Who to Ignore

A coaching client of mine is managing partner at a very large law firm, and one of the issues we’ve been working on is how to cope more effectively with the intense demands on his time—clients who expect him to be available, firm partners and other employees who want him to address their concerns and resolve disputes, an inbox overflowing with messages from these same (and still other!) people, and an endless to-do list. Compounding this challenge, of course, is the importance of making time for loved ones and friends, exercise, and other personal needs.

When faced with potentially overwhelming demands on our time, we’re often advised to “Prioritize!” as if that’s some sort of spell that will magically solve the problem. But what I’ve learned in the process of helping people cope with and manage their workflow is that prioritizing accomplishes relatively little, in part because it’s so easy to do. Let’s define the term: Prioritizing is the process of ranking things—the people who want to take up our time, items on our to-do list, messages in our Inbox—in order of importance. While this involves the occasionally difficult judgment call, for the most part it’s a straightforward cognitive task. When looking at a meeting request, a to-do list, or an email we have an intuitive sense of how important it is, and we can readily compare these items and rank-order them.

Here’s the problem. After we prioritize, we act as though everything merits our time and attention, and we’ll get to the less-important items “later.” But later never really arrives. The list remains without end.

Our time and attention are finite resources, and once we reach a certain level of responsibility in our professional lives, we can never fulfill all the demands we face no matter how long and hard we work. The line of people who want to see us stretches out the door and into the street. Our to-do lists run to the floor. Our inboxes are never empty.

What trips up so many of us is imagining that we can keep lowering that threshold—by working harder, longer, “smarter” (whatever that really means) in the futile hope that eventually, someday, we’ll get to the bottom of that list.

The key is recognizing that prioritization is necessary but insufficient. The critical next step is triage. Medical staff in a crisis must decide who requires immediate assistance, who can wait, who doesn’t need help at all, and who’s past saving. Triage for the rest of us entails not just focusing on the items that are most important and deferring those that are less important until “later,” but actively ignoring the vast number of items whose importance falls below a certain threshold.

The first step is to reframe the issue. Viewing a full inbox, unfinished to-do lists, and a line of disappointed people at the door as a sign of our failure is profoundly unhelpful. This perspective may motivate us to work harder in the hopes of someday achieving victory, but this is futile. We will never win these battles, not in any meaningful sense, because at a certain point in our careers the potential demands facing us will always outstrip our capacity, no matter how much effort we dedicate to work. So the inbox, the list, the line at the door are in fact signs of success, evidence that people want our time and attention. And ultimate victory lies not in winning tactical battles but in winning the war: Not an empty inbox, but an inbox emptied of all truly important messages. Not a completed to-do list, but a list with all truly important items scratched off. Not the absence of a line at our door, but a line with no truly important people remaining in it.

The next step is to stop using the wrong tools. We expend vast amounts of energy on “time management” and “personal productivity,” and while these efforts can yield results at the tactical level, they’re futile when it comes to the strategic task of triage. Remember: this is not about making a list but deciding where the cut-off point is and sticking to it.

Finally, we need to address the emotional aspect of triage, because it’s not merely a cognitive process.

Actively ignoring things and saying no to people generates a range of emotions that exert a powerful influence on our choices and behavior. This is precisely what makes triage so difficult, and until we acknowledge its emotional dimension, our efforts to control our workflow through primarily intellectual interventions are unlikely to succeed.

This process may well be occurring right now. A moment ago when you read the phrase, “no truly important people,” above, you probably flinched a little and thought it was somewhat callous. I flinch when I read it, too, and I wrote it! But this understandable response is exactly why we devote time and attention to people who don’t truly merit the investment. There’s a fine line between effective triage and being an asshole, and many of us are so worried about crossing that line that we don’t even get close.

To triage effectively we need to enhance our ability to manage these concerns and other, related emotions (and “manage” does not mean “suppress”). As USC neuroscientist Antonio Damasio has written (and as everyone’s surely experienced first-hand), emotions can undermine effective decision-making by “creating an overriding bias against objective facts or even by interfering with support mechanisms of decision-making such as working memory.”

And this is exactly what happens to us when the active choice to ignore — the decision at the heart of triage — generates emotions that we fail to fully grasp.

When confronted by overwhelming demands on our time, we may feel anxious, scared, resentful, or even angry, but we’re often not sufficiently aware of or in touch with these emotions to make effective use of them. They flow through us below the level of active consciousness, inexorably guiding our behavior, but in many cases—and particularly when under stress—we fail to recognize their influence and miss opportunities to make the choices that will best meet our needs.

Improved emotion management is a complex undertaking, but there are a number of steps we can take that help:

-Adjust our mental models to reflect emotions’ importance and the role they play in rational thought and decision-making. Our beliefs shape our experience.
-Take better care of ourselves physically. Regular exercise and sufficient sleep demonstrably improve our ability to both perceive and regulate emotion.
-Engage in some form of mindfulness routine. Meditation, journaling and other reflective practices enhance our ability to direct our thoughts, helping us sense emotion more acutely, and provide a new perspective on our experiences, helping us make sense of those emotions.

Expand our emotional vocabulary—literally. Having a wider range of words to describe what we’re feeling not only helps us communicate better with others, but also helps us to more accurately understand ourselves.
The ultimate goal is to expand our comfort with discomfort—to be able to acknowledge the difficult emotions generated by the need to triage so that we can face our endless to-do list, our overflowing Inbox, and the line of people clamoring for our attention and, kindly but firmly, say “No.”

In http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/08/the-most-productive-people-know-who-to-ignore/ via facebook

De divina proportione

De Divina Proportione (About the divine proportions) is a famous book on mathematics written by Luca Pacioli around 1497 in Milan. Today only two versions of the original manuscript are believed still to exist. The subject was mathematical and artistic proportions, and the book was illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci. – Wikipedia

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Os pensadores renascentistas viam uma certa perfeição matemática na forma humana. Esta imagem representa o corpo humano inserido na forma ideal do círculo e nas perfeitas proporções do quadrado. A imagem foi usada por Luca Pacioli na ilustração do seu livro De Divina Proportione. http://www.educ.fc.ul.pt/

Homem Vitruviano – é um desenho famoso que acompanhava as notas que Leonardo da Vinci fez ao redor do ano 1490 num dos seus diários. Descreve uma figura masculina desnuda separadamente e simultaneamente em duas posições sobrepostas com os braços inscritos num círculo e num quadrado.1 A cabeça é calculada como sendo um oitavo da altura total. Às vezes, o desenho e o texto são chamados de Cânone das Proporções.
O desenho actualmente faz parte da colecção/coleção da Gallerie dell’Accademia (Galeria da Academia) em Veneza, Itália.
Examinando o desenho, pode ser notado que a combinação das posições dos braços e pernas formam quatro posturas diferentes. As posições com os braços em cruz e os pés são inscritas juntas no quadrado. Por outro lado, a posição superior dos braços e das pernas é inscrita no círculo. Isto ilustra o princípio que na mudança entre as duas posições, o centro aparente da figura parece se mover, mas de fato o umbigo da figura, que é o verdadeiro centro de gravidade, permanece imóvel. – Wikipedia

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Anomia

Wikipedia.org

A anomia é um estado de falta de objetivos e perda de identidade, provocado pelas intensas transformações ocorrentes no mundo social moderno. A partir do surgimento do Capitalismo, e da tomada da Razão, como forma de explicar o mundo, há um brusco rompimento com valores tradicionais, fortemente ligados à concepção religiosa.
A Modernidade, com seus intensos processos de mudança, não fornece novos valores que preencham os anteriores demolidos, ocasionando uma espécie de vazio de significado no cotidiano de muitos indivíduos. Há um sentimento de se “estar à deriva,” participando inconscientemente dos processos coletivos/sociais: perda quase total da atuação consciente e da identidade.
Este termo foi cunhado por Émile Durkheim em seu livro O Suicídio. Durkheim emprega este termo para mostrar que algo na sociedade não funciona de forma harmônica. Algo desse corpo está funcionando de forma patológica ou “anomicamente.” Em seu famoso estudo sobre o suicídio, Durkheim mostra que os fatores sociais – especialmente da sociedade moderna – exercem profunda influência sobre a vida dos indivíduos com comportamento suicida.

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